Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers.
University resources Identifying a clear purpose Starting a discussion with clearly articulated objectives can help shape the nature of the discussion and link it to other course goals. Examples of general objectives include: Examining and developing positions on issues of social policy, university policy, or social convention.
Identifying a core problem underlying social conflicts and exploring possible answers to the problem.
Analyzing the root causes or reasons for a social conflict i. Exploring possible consequences or implications of a conflict i. Columbia University, College Teachers Press.
Referring back to these community agreements can be very helpful if discussion becomes tense. Some suggestions include the following: Listen respectfully, without interrupting.
Criticize ideas, not individuals. Commit to learning, not debating. Comment in order to share information, not to persuade.
Avoid blame, speculation, and inflammatory language. Allow everyone the chance to speak. Do not ask individuals to speak for their perceived social group.
For instance, you can assign readings on a specific conflict, instruct students to select their own readings to bring to class, or show a video clip to prompt discussion.
Another option is to have students review materials during class and follow up with a structured discussion. In class, ask students to identify key points of information, stating their source.
You can ask students to do this individually and then pool the information, or you can simply elicit information from the class as a whole.
Make a list of these for the whole class. Acknowledge how difficult it may be to make these distinctions at times. Your framework can be a guide, balancing the need to have clear purpose and direction while being open to student observations and interpretation.
The following strategies can help you maintain the focus and flow of the discussion: Begin the discussion with clear, open-ended but bounded questions that encourage discussion.
Prepare specific questions to use if the class is silent or hesitant about speaking. With probing questions, an instructor can prompt students to share more specific information, clarify an idea, elaborate on a point, or provide further explanation.
Be prepared to re-direct the discussion if students go beyond the intended focus. Drawing attention to the readings or reminding the class about the discussion objectives are useful management techniques.
When students raise points that are extraneous to the focus, note that these are important but tangential. Recap the key discussion points or issues at the end of class, in writing if possible.
Moving beyond a whole group discussion format allows all students to participate and helps prevent the most talkative or opinionated students from dominating the conversation.
Using small groups, your class can hear from students who may not speak otherwise, including those who may see their views as marginalized as well as those who want to explore ideas they are not sure about. Some methods for increasing the number of discussants include: Give each student an opportunity to respond to a guiding question without interruption or comments.
Provide students with the option to pass.The page you are trying to access has moved. The Connecticut State Department of Education has a new website. If you have existing bookmarks you will need to navigate to them and re-bookmark those pages.
Introduction It is recognised that the core Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSA) expected of an individual as a precursor for undertaking formal PG training in CBP may be acquired by alternative routes to acquiring a traditional relevant.
Page 3 of 6 Introduction. Reflective Essay: Sample Paper Format Introduction Common elements in a reflective writing introduction include: Q identify the focus of your reflection (e.g., your experience, a specific situation or story, an overview of a collection of experiences).
As with any essay, your reflective essay should begin with an introduction. The parts of your introduction to include in your outline are: The hook: you want to grab your reader’s attention from the very start. If you’re telling about an experience, give a quick preview of the most exciting part of that story.
by the author in the article to answer is the best way to critically engage with the article in a reflection paper, rather than falling into the "summary" trap.
4. Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.