It is a land rich in natural resources, with recent oil discoveries putting it among the world leaders in potential oil reserves. The newly independent Republic of Kazakhstan ranks ninth in the world in geographic size roughly the size of Western Europe and is the largest country in the world without an ocean port. The Kazakhs, a Turkic people ethnically tied to the Uighur We-goor people of western China and similar in appearance to Mongolians, emerged in from over sixty years of life behind the Iron Curtain.
Though traditionally referring only to ethnic Kazakhsincluding those living in China, Russia, Turkey, Uzbekistan and other neighbouring countries, the term "Kazakh" is increasingly being used to refer to any inhabitant of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs.
The Kazakh territory was a key constituent of the Eurasian Steppe routethe ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe that humans first domesticated the horse i.
Central Asia was originally inhabited by the Scythians. The Cuman entered the steppes of modern-day Kazakhstan around the early 11th century, where they later joined with the Kipchak and established the vast Cuman-Kipchak confederation.
While ancient cities Taraz Aulie-Ata and Hazrat-e Turkestan had long served as important way-stations along the Silk Road connecting Asia and Europe, true political consolidation began only with the Mongol rule of the early 13th century.
Under the Mongol Empirethe largest in world history, administrative districts were established. These eventually came under the rule of the emergent Kazakh Khanate Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan: Kazakhstan, country of Central Asia. It is bounded on the northwest and north by Russia, on the east by China, and on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and the Aral Sea; the Caspian Sea bounds Kazakhstan to the southwest. Kazakhstan is the largest country in Central Asia and the. History Kazakhstan is one of the last countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) — the former Soviet Republics — to introduce a national currency. In , a "panel" of the designers was created to introduce a new national currency. Since independence in , Kazakhstan has pursued what is known as the "multivector foreign to help the humanitarian crisis, Kazakhstan sent $, of aid to Ukraine's southeastern regions. President Nazarbayev said of the war in Ukraine, "The fratricidal war has brought true devastation to eastern Ukraine, and it is a common task to Official languages: Kazakh (official state language), Russian (used as official).
Throughout this period, traditional nomadic life and a livestock -based economy continued to dominate the steppe. In the 15th century, a distinct Kazakh identity began to emerge among the Turkic tribes, a process which was consolidated by the midth century with the appearance of the Kazakh languageculture, and economy.
Nevertheless, the region was the focus of ever-increasing disputes between the native Kazakh emirs and the neighbouring Persian-speaking peoples to the south. At its height the Khanate would rule parts of Central Asia and control Cumania.
Political disunion, tribal rivalries, and the diminishing importance of overland trade routes between East and West weakened the Kazakh Khanate. Khiva Khanate used this opportunity and annexed Mangyshlak Peninsula. Uzbek rule there lasted two centuries until the Russian arrival.
During the 17th century, the Kazakhs fought Oiratsa federation of western Mongol tribes, including the Dzungar. During this period the Little Horde participated in the — war against the Dzungar, following their "Great Disaster" invasion of Kazakh territories.
The Kazakh suffered from the frequent raids against them by the Volga Kalmyk. Also, the Emirate of Bukhara ruled Shymkent before the Russians took dominance. The " Great Game " period is generally regarded as running from approximately to the Anglo-Russian Convention of The tsars effectively ruled over most of the territory belonging to what is now the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The Russian Empire introduced a system of administration and built military garrisons and barracks in its effort to establish a presence in Central Asia in the so-called "Great Game" for dominance in the area against the British Empirewhich was extending its influence from the south in India and Southeast Asia.
Russia built its first outpost, Orskin Russia introduced the Russian language in all schools and governmental organisations. It had disrupted the traditional nomadic lifestyle and livestock-based economy, and people were suffering from hunger and starvation, with some Kazakh tribes being decimated.
The Kazakh national movement, which began in the late 19th century, sought to preserve the native language and identity by resisting the attempts of the Russian Empire to assimilate and stifle them. From the s onward, ever-larger numbers of settlers from the Russian Empire began colonising the territory of present-day Kazakhstan, in particular the province of Semirechye.
The number of settlers rose still further once the Trans-Aral Railway from Orenburg to Tashkent was completed in Petersburg oversaw and encouraged the migration to expand Russian influence in the area.
|Milestones: 1989–1992||It has since played a historic role and gained unique expertise in fostering change in the region - and beyond.|
|Culture Name||Middle-Ages By the early Middle Ages, a number of large field-farming oases with a sedentary population appeared in Kazakhstan.|
|Kazakhstan history: past, present and future||For more information, please see the full notice. Bush did not automatically follow the policy of his predecessor, Ronald Reagan, in dealing with Mikhail Gorbachev and the Soviet Union.|
|Kazakhstan - Countries - Office of the Historian||Overview[ edit ] Human activity in the region began with the extinct Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus one million—, years ago in the Karatau Mountains and the Caspian and Balkhash areas.|
During the 19th century aboutRussians immigrated to Kazakhstan, and about one million Slavs, Germans, Jews, and others immigrated to the region during the first third of the 20th century.
The competition for land and water that ensued between the Kazakh and the newcomers caused great resentment against colonial rule during the final years of the Russian Empire. The most serious uprising, the Central Asian Revoltoccurred in December - Nursultan Nazarbayev wins uncontested presidential elections; Kazakhstan declares independence from the Soviet Union and joins the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Women in national costume celebrate the Kazakh new year.
History Kazakhstan is one of the last countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) — the former Soviet Republics — to introduce a national currency. In , a "panel" of the designers was created to introduce a new national currency. Humans have inhabited Kazakhstan since the Lower Paleolithic, generally pursuing the nomadic pastoralism for which the region's climate and terrain are suitable. Prehistoric Bronze Age cultures which extended into the region include the Srubna, the Afanasevo, and the ashio-midori.comn BC and AD Kazakhstan was home to the Saka and the Huns, early nomadic warrior cultures. Kazakhstan proclaimed its membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States on Dec. 21, , along with ten other former Soviet republics. In , the country overwhelmingly approved the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Kazakhstan is nominally a presidential republic, although in fact, it is a dictatorship. The president, Nursultan Nazarbayev, has been in office since before the fall of the Soviet Union, and rigs elections regularly.
Boris Yeltsin makes a speech from atop a tank in front of the Russian parliament building in Moscow, U.S.S.R., Monday, Aug. 19, Kazakhstan: Kazakhstan, country of Central Asia. It is bounded on the northwest and north by Russia, on the east by China, and on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and the Aral Sea; the Caspian Sea bounds Kazakhstan to the southwest.
Kazakhstan is the largest country in Central Asia and the. Bush recognized all 12 independent republics and established diplomatic relations with Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan.
In February , Baker visited the remaining republics and diplomatic relations were established with Uzbekistan, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan.
History Communist Era After the Red Army defeated the White forces, the Whites fled to Alaska. The Whites took with them books, artwork and other Russian cultural artifacts that would have otherwise perished under the .