Everything important that has happened to humans since the Paleolithic is due to environmental influences. History as a whole reflects these environmental differences and forces.
Everything important that has happened to humans since the Paleolithic is due to environmental influences. History as a whole reflects these environmental differences and forces. Culture is largely irrelevant: Diamond proceeds systematically through the main phases of history in all parts of the world and tries to show, with detailed arguments, how each phase, in each major region, is explainable largely by environmental forces.
The final outcome of these environmentally caused processes is the rise and dominance of Europe. The essential argument is very clear and simple. Almost all of history after the Ice Ages happened in the temperate midlatitudes of Staples essay.
The natural environment of this large region is better for human progress than are the tropical environments of the world, and the other temperate or midlatitude regions -- South Africa, Australia, and midlatitude North and South America -- could not be central for human progress because they are much smaller than Eurasia and are isolated from it and from each other.
Although many civilizations arose and flourished in temperate Eurasia, only two were ultimately crucial, because of their especially favorable environments: Some years ago China's environment proved itself to be inferior to Europe's in several crucial ways.
Therefore Europe in the end was triumphant.
Diamond distinguishes between the "ultimate factors" that explain "the broadest patterns of history" and the "proximate factors," which are effects of the "ultimate factors" and explain short-term and local historical processes. The "ultimate" factors are environmental.
The most important of these "ultimate" factors are the natural conditions that led to the rise of food production. Those world regions that became agricultural very early gained a permanent advantage in history.
The "ultimate" causes led, in much later times, to regional variations in technology, social organization, and health; these, then, were the "proximate" causes of modern history.
More than half of Guns, Germs, and Steel is devoted to elucidating the "ultimate" causes, explaining why differing environments led to differing rates in the acquisition of agriculture, and explaining how the resulting differences largely determined the "fate" his word of different peoples.
The "ultimate" causes are three primordial environmental facts: The first and most basic cause is the shape of the continents: Eurasia, Africa, and the Americas. Eurasia has an east-west axis; the other two have north-south axes.
This has had "enormous, sometimes tragic consequences" for human history p. Africa and the Americas were unable to progress throughout most of history because their "axes" are north-south, not east-west. But Diamond is not really talking about axes; mostly he is making a rather subtle argument about the climatic advantages that in his view midlatitude regions have over tropical regions.Disposable Pens Are No Small Problem.
According to the EPA, Americans throw away billion disposable pens every year. Add the rest of the world, multiply by over 50 years of writing with disposable pens, and that’s a lot of metal and plastic waste ending up in landfill!
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Clive Staples Lewis was born on November 29 in Belfast, Northern Ireland, to Albert J. Lewis () and Florence Augusta Hamilton Lewis (). *If new to this series, please see the introduction.* Today we address one of the most quoted and most commonly misinterpreted passages in the Bible, a verse usually cited to mean that people shouldn’t judge one another but meaning something entirely different: Matthew –2 Μὴ.
ENVIRONMENTALISM AND EUROCENTRISM: A REVIEW ESSAY. J. M. BLAUT "Environment molds history," says Jared Diamond in _Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies_ (p. ). Clive Staples Lewis was born on November 29 in Belfast, Northern Ireland, to Albert J.
Lewis () and Florence Augusta Hamilton Lewis ().